Tuesday, 28 November 2017


(CATEGORY NO.492/16)

Module I  
History of forests in India – National Forest Policy 1894, 1952 and 1988; Indian Forest Act, 1927; Forest Conservation Act, 1980 and Wildlife Protection Act,1972; Forests-extent,  basis  for  classification and distribution in India;  Trees Outside Forests-Geographical distribution and salient features of major world forest types; Phytogeographical regions and vegetation of India; Role of forests in national economy – productive, protective and ameliorative, tribal and rural livelihoods;  Forest  types of  India:  distribution and types;  Succession,  climax and retrogression

Module II
Concept and definition of agroforestry, social forestry, community forestry and farm forestry; Benefits and constraints of agroforestry; Historical development of  agroforestry.  Classification of  agroforestry  systems:  structural,  functional, socio-economic and ecological;  Diagnosis and design of agroforestry system; Land capability classification and land use;  Criteria of an ideal  agroforestry design, productivity, sustainability and adoptability; Multipurpose tree species and  their  characteristics  suitable  for  agroforestry.  Choice  of  species  and management;  Pruning,  lopping.  Pollarding;  Financial  analysis  and economic evaluation of agroforestry systems:  cost  benefit  analysis and land equivalent ratio; Agroforestry practices and systems in different agro-ecological zones of India.

Module III 
Wood quality-wood seasoning and wood preservation: forest based industries – Plant-based cottage industries-bamboo; Plywood and pulp industries, non-wood forest products such as gums, resins & tannins, medicinal plants, essential oils, edible fruits, spices, bamboo and canes;

Module IV 
Forest  mensuration – definition,  object  and scope;  Measurement of diameter, girth,  height,  stem form,  bark  thickness,  crown  width  and  crown  length; Measurement methods and their principles.  Measurement and computation of volume  of  logs  and  felled/standing  trees;  Construction  and  application  of volume tables; Biomass measurement; Growth and increment; Measurement of crops; Forest inventory: kinds of enumeration, sampling methods, sample plots and photo interpretation; Geographic information systems and remote sensing – concept and scope.

Module V
Definition,  object  and scope of  silviculture;  Site factors  – climate,  edaphic, physiographic,  biotic  and  their  influence  on  forest  vegetation;  Forest regeneration: natural and artificial; Silviculture systems-high forest and coppice systems;  Clear  felling  –  shelterwood  –  selection  systems  –  Silviculture  of important  tree  species  –  Tectona  grandis,  Dalbergia  lattifolia,  Sweitenia macrophylla,  Alianthus  triphysa,  Gmelina areborea,  Eucalyptus sps,  Acacia auriculiformis,  Acacia  mangium,  Bamboo  sps,  Santalum,  Artocarpus heterophyllus,  Artocarpus  hirsutus,  Azadirachta  indica,  Shorea  robusta, Casuarina equisetifolia, Tropical Pines, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, Quercus and Albizia.

Module VI 
Seed collection, processing storage, viability and pre-treatment; Seed dormancy and methods for breaking dormancy; Seed testing and germination tests; Seed certification and ISTA Rules; Forest nursery – need, selection and preparation of site, layout and design of nursery beds; Types of containers; Root trainers; Growing  media  and  sowing  methods;  Management  of  nursery shading, watering,  manuring,  fertilizer application, weed control, insect pest and diseases control; Planting techniques: site selection, evaluation and protection; Soil working techniques for various edaphic and climatic conditions; Planting patterns; Plant  spacing,  manure and fertilizer  application,  irrigation/moisture conservation  techniques;  Choice  of  species.  Afforestation  on  difficult  sites: saline-alkaline soils,  coastal  sands,  lateritic soils,  wetlands,  ravines and sand dunes,  dry  and  rocky  areas,  cold  desert;  Tending  operations  –  weeding, cleaning, climber cutting, thinning – mechanical, ordinary, crown and selection thinning, improvement felling, pruning and girdling: Forest fires: causes, types, impacts and control measures; Major forest pests and weeds.

Module VII 
Forest  management:  definition and scope; Concept of sustained yield and normal forest; Rotation; Estimation of growing stock; density and site quality; Management of even aged and uneven aged forest;  Regulation of yield in regular and irregular forests  by area,  volume,  increment  and number  of  trees;  Working plan;  National Forest  Code – 2014; Joint  forest  management;  Conservation and management  of natural  resources  including wildlife;  Protected  area  Management  plan – National parks,  sanctuaries,  Ramsar  sites  –  Forest  evaluation;  Internal  rate  of  return,  net present value and cost benefit analysis. Forestry and climate change mitigation – Csequestration and Carbon forests – International organizations UNFCCC,  IPCC; CC mitigation strategies such as CDM, LULUCF, REDD+.

Module VIII
Tree improvement:  nature  and extent  of  variations in natural  population;  Natural selection;  Concept  of  seed  source/provenance;  Selection  of  superior  trees;  Seed production areas, exotic trees, land races; Collection, evaluation and maintenance of germplasm;  Provenance  testing.  Genetic  gains;  Tree  breeding:  general  principles, mode of  pollination and floral  structure;  Basics  of  forest  genetics  – inheritance, Hardyweinburg Law, genetic drift; Aims and methods of tree breeding. Seed orchard: types,  establishment,  planning and management.  Progeny test  and designs;  Clonal forestry – merits and demerits; Techniques of vegetative propagation, tissue culture, mist chamber; Role of growth substances in vegetative propagation.

General Knowledge, Current Affairs & Renaissance in Kerala
Salient Features of Indian Constitution
Salient features of the Constitution - Preamble- Its significance and its place in the interpretation of the Constitution.
Fundamental Rights - Directive Principles of State Policy - Relation between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles - Fundamental Duties.
Executive  -  Legislature  -  Judiciary  -  Both  at  Union  and  State  Level.  -  Other  Constitutional Authorities.
Centre-State Relations - Legislative - Administrative and Financial.
Services under the Union and the States.
Emergency Provisions.
Amendment Provisions of the Constitution.

Social Welfare Legislations and Programmes
Social Service Legislations like Right to Information Act, Prevention of atrocities against Women & Children, Food Security Act, Environmental Acts etc. and Social Welfare Programmes like Employment Guarantee Programme, Organ and Blood Donation etc.


Towards A New Society
Introduction  to  English  education  -  various  missionary  organisations  and  their functioningfounding of educational institutions, factories.printing press etc.

Efforts To Reform The Society
(A) Socio-Religious reform Movements
SNDP Yogam,  Nair Service Society,  Yogakshema Sabha, Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham,  Vaala Samudaya  Parishkarani  Sabha,  Samathwa  Samajam,  Islam  Dharma  Paripalana  Sangham, Prathyaksha Raksha Daiva Sabha, Sahodara Prasthanam etc.
(B) Struggles and Social Revolts
Upper  cloth revolts.Channar  agitation,  Vaikom Sathyagraha,  Guruvayoor  Sathyagraha,  Paliyam Sathyagraha. Kuttamkulam Sathyagraha, Temple Entry Proclamation, Temple Entry Act .Malyalee Memorial, Ezhava Memorial etc.
Malabar riots, Civil Disobedience Movement, Abstention movement etc.

Role Of Press In Renaissance
Malayalee,  Swadeshabhimani,  Vivekodayam,  Mithavadi,  Swaraj,  Malayala  Manorama, Bhashaposhini,  Mathnubhoomi,  Kerala  Kaumudi,  Samadarsi,  Kesari,  AI-Ameen,  Prabhatham, Yukthivadi, etc

Awakening Through Literature
Novel, Drama, Poetry, Purogamana Sahithya Prasthanam, Nataka Prashtanam, Library movement etc

Women And Social Change
Parvathi  Nenmenimangalam,  Arya  Pallam,  A V Kuttimalu  Amma,  Lalitha  Prabhu.Akkamma Cheriyan, Anna Chandi, Lalithambika Antharjanam and others

Leaders Of Renaissance
Thycaud Ayya Vaikundar,  Sree Narayana Guru, Ayyan Kali.Chattampi Swamikal,  Brahmananda Sivayogi,  Vagbhadananda,  Poikayil  Yohannan(Kumara  Guru)  Dr  Palpu,  Palakkunnath Abraham Malpan, Mampuram Thangal, Sahodaran Ayyappan, Pandit K P Karuppan, Pampadi John Joseph, Mannathu Padmanabhan, V T Bhattathirippad, Vakkom Abdul Khadar Maulavi,  Makthi Thangal, Blessed Elias  Kuriakose Chaavra,  Barrister  G P Pillai,  TK Madhavan,  Moorkoth Kumaran,  C. Krishnan,  K P Kesava  Menon,  Dr.Ayyathan  Gopalan,  C V Kunjuraman,  Kuroor  Neelakantan Namboothiripad, Velukkutty Arayan, K P Vellon, P K Chathan Master,  K Kelappan, P.  Krishna Pillai, A K Gopalan, T R Krishnaswami Iyer, C Kesavan. Swami Ananda Theerthan , M C Joseph, Kuttippuzha Krishnapillai and others

Literary Figures
Kodungallur Kunhikkuttan Thampuran, KeralaVarma Valiyakoyi Thampuran, Kandathil  Varghese Mappila. Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, Ulloor S Parameswara Iyer, G Sankara Kurup, Changampuzha Krishna Pillai, Chandu Menon, Vaikom Muhammad Basheer. Kesav Dev, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, Ponkunnam Varky, S K Pottakkad and others


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